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founders of geography

12 December 2020

As one of the founding fathers of ancient geography, Ptolemy is credited with the book “Geographia.” In the book, the geographer exercised the concept of segmenting the globe using a grid of longitudes and latitudes. Rivers are an easy example of how geography can impact history. He also developed the first isotherm map, containing lines of equal average temperatures. Each of these influential universities provided instruction in geography and most established undergraduate or graduate programs at one time or another. The term geography was coined by the ancient Greeks who not only created detailed maps and accounts of places around them but also illuminated why and how human and natural patterns varied from one place to another on Earth. The main purpose of these early investigations was to map features and places observed as explorers traveled to new lands. Charles Darwin described him as "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived." Geography was first systematically studied by the ancient Greeks, who also developed a philosophy of geography; Thales of Miletus, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Aristotle, Strabo, and Ptolemy made major contributions to geography. The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational organizations in the world. The geographer used the length of the shadows at noon and the sun’s rays to come up with a formula that enabled him to calculate the earth’s circumference which according to him was 27,402 miles. You can help contribute to its development by submitting significant events in the field of geography here. Geography-wise, Egyptians were pretty clueless by today's standards. In 1904, Mackinder, a British geographer, developed this theory in his article, "The Geographical Pivot of History." Eratosthenes was a 2nd century BC Greek scholar who is credited as the founder of the discipline of geography. From those beginnings the study of the earth as the home of humans, of earth processes, and of the distribution of terrestrial phenomena has continued to our day. Geography is defined as the study of landscapes, people, places, and environment on Earth. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (Paperback) by Jared Diamond. The oldest known world maps are from ancient Babylon around the 9th century BC. The pair went to Madrid and obtained special permission and passports from King Charles II to explore South America. As von Humboldt got older, he decided to write everything known about the earth. Through the passage of time, the rich legacy of geography made a momentous journey to the bright Islamic minds. The scientist was the first to draw a world map, he was a mathematician, astronomer and poet. A man of many firsts, Eratosthenes is also credited with the first world map in history, which was of impressive accuracy, as well as determining the tilt of the Earth’s axis. However, four individuals are considered the founding fathers of ancient geography due to their contributions to the discipline; Eratosthenes, Strabo, Claudius Ptolemy, and Muhammad al-Idrisi. They both act to shape civilizations and history. The ancient Greeks saw the poet Homer as the founder of geography. Von Humboldt met George Forester, Captain James Cook's scientific illustrator from his second voyage, and they hiked around Europe. This was followed by a trip to the Andes and a climb of Mt. Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US. Another founding father of the discipline of geography was Strabo, a 1st Century CE Greek scholar who lived in the Amaseia in modern-day Turkey. The geographer also traveled to Cordoba where he received his education. The accuracy exhibited in the Tabula Rogeriana was remarkable considering the ancient technology employed by Al-Idrisi. Charles Darwin described him as "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived." Clay Tablet of Babylonia. The great result of his geological work was the discovery that rocks do not occur in inextricable confusion, but that they rest, the […] Some of the first truly geographical studies occurred more than four thousand years ago. The earliest world maps date back to the 9th century BC in ancient Babylon. The accuracy of the “Geographica” book was unchallenged for hundreds of years and was widely reproduced in the Byzantine Empire. Other volumes focused on such topics as human's effort to describe the earth, astronomy, and earth and human interaction. His father, who was an army officer, died when he was nine years old so he and his older brother Wilhelm were raised by their cold and distant mother. They called the Mediterranean Sea the "Great Green," believing that it encircled the entire world. All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas., page 131). Continental Europe and the Mediterranean were well defined in Strabo’s map. They stayed in Washington for three weeks and von Humboldt had many meetings with Thomas Jefferson and the two became good friends. Covered are events and advances in world geography, human geography, physical geography, and cartography/GIS. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the four eminent founders of modern geology with their contribution. From 1827 to 1828, Alexander von Humboldt gave public lectures in Berlin. Ptolemy’s model was the forerunner of modern map-making as it also measured latitudes from the “climata,” the word he gave for the equator. What Is A Cultural Region In Human Geography? R. Wright, N. Koch, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 2009. The list of star constellations made the Almagest a book of great import to astronomers in Europe and Arabia in the medieval era. Founded in 1888, its interests include geography, archaeology, and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. Once they arrived in South America, Alexander von Humboldt and Bonpland studied the flora, fauna, and topography of the continent. The Babylonians did a little bit better. Eratosthenes was a 2nd century BC Greek scholar who is credited as the founder of the discipline of geography. Michael Williams, 'The relations of environmental history and historical geography', Journal of Historical Geography, 20 (1994), 3–21. Ancient Greeks. Some historians believe that Eratosthenes was responsible for the leap day, and accurately determined the distance between the Sun and the Earth. His theory said that the age of seapower was ending and that whoever controlled the heartland would … Ancient Arabic sources referred to Ptolemy as “Batlamyus” from Upper Egypt. Al-Idrisi was among the founders of geography, with one of the earliest accurate maps being attributed to him. Some notes about this timeline page: This timeline on the history of geography is still very much a work in progress. Humans can influence geography as Earth’s natural processes can influence geography. Al-Idrisi was a 12th-century Arabic geographer, who was best known for one of the most accurate geographical maps of the ancient world. The works of this geographer became the foundations of the study of geography. Von Humboldt was later invited to Russia by the tsar and after exploring the nation and describing discoveries such as permafrost, he recommended that Russia establish weather observatories across the country. Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. He is widely respected as one of the founders of modern geography. However, these maps were basic regional maps and were laden with errors and exaggerations. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it.They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment, and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. In 1827, he returned to Berlin where he obtained a steady income by becoming the King of Prussia's advisor. On January 27, 1888, the National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D.C., for “the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge.” The … In Iliad and the Odyssey Homer included a high degree geographical information. The stations were established in 1835 and von Humboldt was able to use the data to develop the principle of continentality, that the interiors of continents have more extreme climates due to a lack of moderating influence from the ocean. Some historians point Anaximander, a 4th century BC Greek scholar as the true founder of the study of geography. Homer describes a circular world ringed by a single massive ocean. The first volume, a general overview of the universe, sold out in two months and was promptly translated into many languages. Alexander von Humboldt's travels, experiments, and knowledge transformed western science in the nineteenth century. The geographer died in 194 BC but left behind a collection of books, many of which were lost during the Destruction of the Alexandria Library. Humboldt died in 1859 and the fifth and final volume was published in 1862, based on his notes for the work. HISTORY OF GEOGRAPHY Surface of the earth Pangaea From one continent to six To the 14th century AD 15th - 16th century 17th - 18th century 19th - 20th century Share | Discover in a free daily email today's famous history and birthdays Enjoy the Famous Daily. The best known Babylonian world map, however, is the Imago Mundi of 600 BC. Besides, the geographer also published a book entitled, “Kitab nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi’khtiraq al-‘afaq,” in which he outlined geographic information about the world. The pair were persuaded to visit Washington, D.C. by an American counselor and they did so. Both Humboldt and Ritter shared similar views. Ptolemy’s name suggests that he was born as a Roman citizen but of either Hellenized Egyptian or Greek ancestry. Stores of knowledge were built up about such new and exotic places, as demonstrated by the Greek philosopher and world traveler Herodotus in the 5th century bce. Von Humboldt sailed to Paris in 1804 and wrote thirty volumes about his field studies. Chimborazo (in modern Ecuador), then believed to be the tallest mountain in the world. The naturalist Charles Darwin wrote a book called the ‘Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection’ in 1859. Von Humboldt's fortunes were ultimately exhausted because of his travels and self-publishing of his reports. Strabo’s best-known work was his “Geographical” publication in which he drew a relatively accurate map of the world as it was known to him. The Roman contribution to geography was in the exploration and mapping of previously unknown lands. Kosmos was well written and well received. The map as reconstructed by Eckhard Unger shows Babylon on the Euphrates, surrounded by a circular landmass showing Assyria, Urartu, and several cities, in turn surrounded by a "bitter river" (Oceanus), with seven islands arranged around it so as to form a seven-pointed star. Most of the earliest human civilizations developed along large rivers because of the nutrients that were deposited in the surrounding soil during annual floods. Ancient Greece saw the birth of the study of geography and with it the first true world maps. As well as Humboldt, Carl Ritter is also considered as one of the founders of modern geography. Geography seeks to … The oldest known world maps date back to ancient Babylon from the 9th century BC. The map was used for hundreds of years after his death, with prominent explorers of later years such as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus using the map for navigation. He stayed in France for 23 years and met with many other intellectuals on a regular basis. These careers vary in … Al-Idrisi credited Claudius Ptolemy for the geographical coordinates used in his publication. In 1803 they explored Mexico. When he was 27, Alexander's mother died, leaving him as substantial income from the estate. Once he was old enough, Alexander began to study at the Freiberg Academy of Mines under the famous geologist A.G. Werner. Who Are The Founding Fathers Of The European Union? The geographer died in 1165 in his ancestral town of Ceuta at the age of 64 or 65 years. Mackinder said the world would be divided into a Heartland consisting of Eastern Europe, a World Island made up of Eurasia and Africa, Peripheral Islands, and the New World. The works show that the Greeksby the 8th century BC had considerable knowledge of the geography of the eastern Mediterranean. (Geoffrey J. Martin, and Preston E. James. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. Publication date 1879 Topics Its separate identity was first formulated and named some 2,000 years ago by the Greeks, whose geo and graphein were combined to mean “earth writing” or “earth description.”. The lectures were so popular that new assembly halls had to be found due to the demand. Eratosthenes is considered to be the 'Father of Geography'. The map was drawn in 1154 and is the first to show the whole of Eurasia and part of North Africa. The geographer used his knowledge of the earth, which he obtained from the mapping studies done by professionals before him, to come up with a map of the world in his publication “Geogr… Mediterranean Sea..(1400 BC) -way to exploration to Britain and African coast. (shelved … One of the Ptolemy’s most famous books was the Almagest, which focused on astronomy. A province by province tour from east to west of the best tourism and natural attractions of Canada. Ptolemy was a 1st century CE astronomer and geographer from the Roman Empire. However, what is now understood as geography was elaborated before then, in … This measurement was used for hundreds of years and was even studied by Christopher Columbus 17 centuries after the death of Eratosthenes. The geographer’s ancestors forcefully settled in Ceuta after the Zirids of Granada defeated Hammudid Malaga. 1.1 Venn diagram of the relations of geography, history and their subject matter page 3 1.2 Venn diagram of the four principal discourses of geography 8 2.1 The distribution of ploughteams in England in 1086, as recorded in Domesday Book 41 2.2 The ‘timing’ of some voluntary associations in Loir-et-Cher, Geography definition, the science dealing with the areal differentiation of the earth's surface, as shown in the character, arrangement, and interrelations over the world of such elements as climate, elevation, soil, vegetation, population, land use, industries, or states, and of the unit areas formed by the complex of these individual elements. They didn't make it to the top due to a wall-like cliff but they did climb to over 18,000 feet in elevation. Both interact t… STUDY. the first known maps during ancient times. In 1792, at the age of 22, von Humboldt began a job as a government mines inspector in Franconia, Prussia. By Joseph Kiprop on May 14 2018 in Society. The Islamic Golden Age witnessed astounding advancements in the geographical sciences. Charles W. J. Withers, Geography, Science and National Identity: Scotland since 1520 (Cambridge, 2001). ", Famous People Who Studied Geography and Renowned Geographers, Biography of Frederic Edwin Church, American Landscape Painter, Biography of James Hutton, Founder of Modern Geology, Teaching Students Who Have a Naturalist Intelligence, Life and Contributions of Robert Koch, Founder of Modern Bacteriology, Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German Writer and Statesman, Biography of Alfred Wegener, German Scientist, M.A., Geography, California State University - Northridge, B.A., Geography, University of California - Davis. German geographer Carl Ritter is commonly associated with Alexander von Humboldt as one of the founders of modern geography.However, most acknowledge Ritter's contributions to the modern discipline to be somewhat less significant than those of von Humboldt, especially as Ritter's life-work was based on the observations of others. The book was among the first to outline the study of geography in history. Alexander von Humboldt was born in Berlin, Germany in 1769. The following year, he left government service and began to plan travels with Aime Bonpland, a botanist. Eratosthenes is believed to have been born in 276 BC in Cyrene and was the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria. Founder # 1. History of Geography. During his expeditions in the Americas and Europe, he recorded and reported on magnetic declination. The geographer is believed to have been born in 100 AD in Egypt. Alexander von Humboldt's travels, experiments, and knowledge transformed western science in the nineteenth century. Islamic geographers were credited with groundbreaking discoveries. Von Humboldt was the last true master but one of the first to bring geography to the world. Geography is the study of the physical environment, in relation to the human world.The concept, History of geography basically emphasizes on how and what changes geography has undergone in the past years.Geography doesn't possess the same concepts like the past years. It informs us about our world and bridges natural sciences and human or social sciences. While maps had been made millennia earlier in Sumer, the Greeks were the first to attempt to fully and systematically describe the world. The works of this geographer became the foundations of the study of geography. In his youth, Al-Idrisi spent most of his time traveling and was able to explore many regions in Europe including Pyrenees and Jorvik, and North Africa. This article explore the history of geography in the Ivy League – eight of the oldest and most prestigious academic institutions in the United States. The history and geography of the Bible comes alive through these charts Study the lessons on a personal computer or teach the course using a projector in an auditorium or classroom setting Maps, charts, and photographs are of the very best quality! He calculated the circumference of the world although people did not travel that far at that time (remember that the Americas or a route to India was not described at that time). Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook. Alexander von Humboldt was offered a position in the Mexican cabinet but he refused. In 1800 von Humboldt mapped over 1700 miles of the Orinco River. HISTORY OF GEOGRAPHY including Ptolemy and the Renaissance, The first globe, Columbus and the monarchs, Columbus sets sail, Atlantic and Pacific, Magellan's theory, Magellan and Elcano, Problems of projection, Mercator Many of Ptolemy’s works inspired younger geographers and were used for many centuries after his death. PLAY. Al-Idrisi would later move to Palermo, Sicily under King Roger II. Unlike Eratosthenes, Strabo was well-traveled and had visited Kush and Egypt, and had journeyed as far as Ethiopia and Asia Minor. The poems contain a large number of place names and descriptions, but for many of these it is uncertain what real location, if any, … The star catalog in the Almagest was based on a similar catalog by an earlier astronomer, Hipparchus. They didn't even know Europe existed! A well-established international quarterly, the Journal of Historical Geography publishes articles on all aspects of historical geography and cognate fields, including environmental history. Th… Werner: Abraham Gottlieb Werner was born in Upper Lusatia in 1749. He is widely respected as one of the founders of modern geography. gave the most important knowledge relating to form, size and general nature of the earth. While on the west coast of South America, von Humboldt measured and discovered the Peruvian Current, which, over the objections of von Humboldt himself, is also known as the Humboldt Current. Phoenicians Minoans Assyrians The geographer used his knowledge of the earth, which he obtained from the mapping studies done by professionals before him, to come up with a map of the world in his publication “Geographika.” The book introduced the term “geography” to the world. History and geography are two subjects that complement each other well in several careers across different job fields. A history of ancient geography among the Greeks and Romans: From the Earliest Ages Till the Fall ... by Edward Herbert Bunbury, Sir Edward Herbert bart Bunbury. The geographer was born in 1100 AD in Ceuta, a town which was then under Almoravids, to a family that claimed to be direct descendants of Prophet Muhammad. He called his work Kosmos and the first volume was published in 1845, when he was 76 years old. The Greek scientist Eratosthenes (276–194 BC) was the first person who used the term 'geography'. The publication has one of the most exhaustive star catalogs of the pre-modern era. The works of Strabo were influenced by earlier Greek scholars such as Hipparchus and Eratosthenes, with Strabo citing the two in his publications. Once von Humboldt died, "no individual scholar could hope any longer to master the world's knowledge about the earth." His works the Iliad and the Odyssey are works of literature, but both contain a great deal of geographical information. One particularly impressive feat by Eratosthenes was that he was able to determine the circumference of the earth with remarkable accuracy without even traveling from Egypt. Tutors provided their early education which was grounded in languages and mathematics. The catalog was made up of 48-star constellations that were visible to the pre-modern astronomer. Eratosthenes is believed to have been born in 276 BC in Cyrene and was the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria. Ancient Egyptians thought the Nile was the center of the world. . The word geography is derived from the Greek word geographia, meaning “Earth description.” Geography is partitioned into two categories: human geography and physical geography. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encir… At least they made a few maps. Geography’s Place in Higher Education in the United States By Alexander B. Murphy (2007), Journal of Geography in Higher Education, Vol. Ptolemy’s map of the world was quite accurate considering the technology of the time and showed countries as far out as China (Sinae) and Sri Lanka (Taprobane). The Greeks are the first known culture to actively explore geography as a science and philosophy. That knowledge became known as geography, a term first used as the title of Eratosthenes of Cyrene ’s … 31, Issue 1 Documents the strengthening of geography’s institutional position in U.S. colleges and universities over the preceding fifteen years and reflects on the reasons behind the discipline’s growth. History of Geography and Physical Geography. The first work entitled Geography was written in Alexandria, in the third century B.C., by Eratosthenes. The map is known as the “Tabula Rogeriana,” was based on navigation information from Islamic merchants and earlier Islamic maps. 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Human Societies ( Paperback ) by Jared Diamond even studied by Christopher Columbus 17 after... Passports from King charles II to explore South America George Forester, James! Term 'geography ' in Upper Lusatia in 1749 persuaded to visit Washington D.C.! Andes and a climb of Mt journeyed as far as Ethiopia and Asia Minor known... Fates of human Societies ( Paperback ) by Jared Diamond ancient world known one. Exhaustive star founders of geography of the pre-modern astronomer has one of the earliest human civilizations developed along Rivers. Foundations of the European Union such topics as human 's effort to describe the earth. the century... The Islamic Golden age witnessed astounding advancements in the field of geography here gave most... Citing the two became good friends Mediterranean were well defined in strabo’s map 2020. When he was old enough, alexander 's mother died, `` no individual scholar could hope any to! 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