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Peter Bergmann: Nietzsche was among the most historically minded of philosophers. Please consider donating now. Recently an English translation appeared of a 1991 anthology by young French philosophers titled "Why We Are Not Nietzscheans." Nietzsche extoled aristocratic societies and military elites claiming that they create higher quality of culture. Comments that are critical of an essay may be approved, but comments containing ad hominem criticism of the author will not be published. Many of the contemporary world’s assumptions regarding the primacy of individualism and the disavowal of universals were exposited by Nietzsche. ... All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? He mentions a "dishonest lie", (discussing Wagner in The Case of Wagner) as opposed to an "honest" one, recommending further to consult Plato with regard to the latter, which should give some idea of the layers of paradox in his work. Furthermore, they enslave themselves to their own creation. [108], Nietzsche's views on women have served as a magnet for controversy, beginning during his life and continuing to the present. [58][59][60] He named him together with Savonarola, Martin Luther, Robespierre and Saint-Simon as fanatics, “sick intellects” who influence masses and stand in opposition to strong spirits. So, Nietzsche holds that the lion must again transform in order to forget. In "Nietzsche and Fascists," he argued against such instrumentalization, by the left or the right, declaring that Nietzsche's aim was to by-pass the short timespan of modern politics, and its inherent lies and simplifications, for a greater historical timespan. ...[101]. ... We who are homeless are too manifold and mixed racially and in our descent, being "modern men", and consequently do not feel tempted to participate in the mendacious racial self-admiration and racial indecency that parades in Germany today as a sign of a German way of thinking and that is doubly false and obscene among the people of the "historical sense". Nietzsche's political ideas were variously interpreted as aristocratic radicalism[9], Bonapartism[10], proto-fascism, individualist anarchism, with some authors describing him as apolitical, anti-political or political sceptic. Nietzsche presents the idea that past and present philosophers have unknowingly been victims of their own unconscious forces or drives. Friedrich Nietzsche sought to change the world, and there is significant evidence that the existentialist philosopher succeeded. This article is about Nietzsche's philosophy. [10] Friedrich Nietzsche, The Portable Nietzsche, 571. They are an unknown influence on philosophers outlooks, and as such are philosophical prejudices. [114] Mainländer took the pessimism of Schopenhauer to its ultimate conclusion and ended his own life. (This forms part of a more general claim that no universally true fact exists, roughly because none of them more than "appear" to correspond to reality). Since then I've had difficulty coming up with any of the tenderness and protectiveness I've so long felt toward you. [45] He claimed that luxurious goods should be heavily taxed[46] and that economy should be regulated so that people cannot get rich quickly by means of financial speculation. [72] There are also controversies about some newer translations of Nietzsche which seem to be misleadingly euphemistic when dealing with more loaded terms that Nietzsche used. However, they are more or less extensively quoted and discussed in eleven books that Nietzsche owned in his personal library and in one of them he underlined Marx's name. The question remained pendent. These emendations show how Schopenhauer's philosophy was not a mere initial stimulus for Nietzsche, but formed the basis for much of Nietzsche's thinking. To the "ethics of compassion" (Mitleid, "shared suffering") exposed by Schopenhauer,[30] Nietzsche opposed an "ethics of friendship" or of "shared joy" (Mitfreude).[31]. Brobjer believes Kierkegaard is one of "those moralists". This anthology includes essays by many of the leading Nietzsche scholars, including Keith Ansell-Pearson, Daniel Conway, Tracy B. For that we are too open-minded, too malicious, too spoiled, also too well-informed, too "traveled": we far prefer to live on mountains, apart, "untimely", in past or future centuries, merely in order to keep ourselves from experiencing the silent rage to which we know we should be condemned as eyewitnesses of politics that are desolating the German spirit by making it vain and that is, moreover, petty politics:—to keep its own creation from immediately falling apart again, is it not finding it necessary to plant it between two deadly hatreds? In Ecce Homo he particularly praised French culture as superior to all others, especially German. Although he participated in the war as a volunteer, he soon became disillusioned by the new Reich seeing the subsequent development in German culture as vulgar and triumphalist. The failures of religion and science, for Nietzsche, rested ultimately in their metaphysical assumptions. He interpreted Napoleon as an autocratic genius who stood above conventional morality and tried to revive the aristocratic spirit of Roman Empire, paganism and Renaissance, and not as a progressive revolutionary leader like some of his contemporaries. [120], Nietzsche knew little of the 19th-century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. Before Nietzsche, the idea of the death of God had been also espoused by Martin Luther and Hegel. Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment, in which you would answer him: "Thou art a god, and never have I heard anything more divine!" In his Egotism in German Philosophy,[110] Santayana listed Nietzsche's antithetical reactions to Schopenhauer: The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism (Schopenhauer' s two principles of morals) Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong. Miles, Thomas. The spirit has undergone much duress and turmoil in its transformations, but it must cleanse its mind of the past. Without any presence of metaphysics or higher standards to seek, the very idea of philosophy is thrown into question. [53] As opposed to the urban working class, Nietzsche praised the peasantry as an example of health and natural nobility.[54][55]. [70] Western Leftist writers, led by French postwar intellectuals, largely rehabilitated Nietzsche on the Left and have proposed ways of using Nietzschean theory in what has become known as the "politics of difference" — particularly in formulating theories of political resistance and sexual and moral difference. Nietzsche believed this "death" had already started to undermine the foundations of morality and would lead to moral relativism and moral nihilism. Thus Christianity is no more than the typical teaching of Socialists. For example, although Schwitzgebel and Cushman show . [51] He was critical of French revolution and was deeply disturbed by the Paris Commune which he saw as a destructive insurrection of the vulgar lower classes that made him feel "annihilated for several days". However, proponents of the strongest form of the Death of God theology have used the phrase in a literal sense, meaning that the Christian God, who had existed at one point, has ceased to … Although he valued individualism his general political views included many hierarchical and authoritarian ideas which are usually incompatible with modern individualistic ideologies. [9] R.C. He was deeply disturbed by the Paris Commune[14], he initially supported Bismarck but became disappointed by his later social policies and détente toward socialists and Catholics[15], he was worried about the rise of Adolf Stöcker, and after death of Emperor Friedrich III he became worried about the future of free speech in Germany.[16]. Man is something that shall be overcome. 201-9- For a discussion and survey of this and other interpretations of Nietzsche's notorious idea of eternal recurrence, see Nehamas 1980, which argues that by 'scientific' Nietzsche meant specifically 'not-teleological.' [16] A superficial observer may wonder how contemporary science, that Baconian product of the Enlightenment, could be a metaphysical force shaping the destiny of modern Europe. [121][122] Georg Brandes, a Danish philosopher, wrote to Nietzsche in 1888 asking him to study the works of Kierkegaard, to which Nietzsche replied that he would. Nietzsche’s Value Judgments . Nietzsche also read Harald Høffding's Psychologie in Umrissen auf Grundlage der Erfahrung (ed. The First Section “Prejudices of Philosophers” contains 23 Aphorisms and is structured in Despite these problems, the poor and downtrodden cling to their religion out of the vain hope that one day their problems will vanish. 1 (Winter 1977): 15. Nietzsche's work addresses ethics from several perspectives: meta-ethics, normative ethics, and descriptive ethics. [21] The Nietzschean philosopher is an overman; he conquers and creates standards but does not discover them. However, he did never recommend or argue for suicide – this is a common misconception – and aims to motivate those who abhor the world back to an active life with self-chosen goals. This weakness was, in turn, complemented by modernity’s incessant drive for scientific improvement. Josh Jones is a writer and musician based … [3]" There, he called Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche "Elisabeth Judas-Förster," recalling Nietzsche's declaration: "To never frequent anyone who is involved in this bare-faced fraud concerning races."[3]. In Ecce Homo (1888), Nietzsche criticized the "German nation" and its "will to power (to Empire, to Reich)", thus underscoring an easy misinterpretation of the Wille zur Macht, the conception of Germans as a "race", and the "anti-Semitic way of writing history", or of making "history conform to the German Empire", and stigmatized "nationalism, this national neurosis from which Europe is sick", this "small politics".[99]. 10, no. Instead, ethical statements (like all statements) remain mere "interpretations." [15] John P. East, “Leo Strauss and American Conservatism,” Modern Age 21, no. Sartre, Heidegger, Nietzsche: Three Philosophers in Three Hours. (2018) The prohibited Nietzsche: anti‑Nitzscheanism in Soviet Russia. (...) When one has reached a certain degree of independence, one always longs for more: separation in proportion to the degree of force; the individual is no longer content to regard himself as equal to everybody, he actually seeks for his peer—he makes himself stand out from others. The philosophy within them, therefore, often needs to be "teased out", leaving them open to a variety of interpretations (a notorious and perennial problem with Nietzsche's work). [65]. [19] While Nietzsche’s belief in the inevitable victory of strong values seems influenced by Darwinian thought, there is a serious difference, for Nietzsche holds that the strong will always “win,” not that the strong will always be the best. In the majority of cases, it is true, assurances of peace are merely stupefying draughts.[104]. It is a basic drive found in everyone, but one that expresses itself in many different ways. Georges Bataille argued in 1937, in the Acéphale review, that Nietzsche's thoughts were too free to be instrumentalized by any political movement. [118], Both Nietzsche and Mainländer owed their philosophical awakening to The World as Will and Representation, they disliked the popular successor of Schopenhauer, Eduard von Hartmann, both championed the individual and rejected traditional values, both proclaimed that God is dead (Mainländer had popularized the theme before Nietzsche[119]). In his opposition to Christian tradition and modern philosophy Nietzsche also criticized the concepts of soul, subject and atomism (that is, the existence of an atomic subject at the foundation of everything, found for example in social contract theories). [17] Friedrich Nietzsche, The Portable Nietzsche, 450. I think Nietzsche’s view of philosophers offers two things lacking in this contemporary work. He wrote that liberalism is synonymous with mediocrity and believed also that it leads to cultural decay. [90]. [5] While Nietzsche avoided triumphalism, he nonetheless recognized the extraordinary opportunity before his very eyes. It is not hunger that provokes revolutions, but the fact that the mob have contracted an appetite en mangeant....) [68]. The old philosophers – Nietzsche also calls them the “teachers of the purpose of existence” (Gay Science §1); it’s not professors of philosophy he has primarily in mind – were in the business of inventing values. Nietzsche used the phrase to express his idea that the Enlightenment had eliminated the possibility of the existence of God. [33][34] In The Will to Power he described individualism as a part of the process that leads to the ultimate goal of establishing the order of rank: Individualism is a modest and still unconscious form of will to power; with it a single human unit seems to think it sufficient to free himself from the preponderating power of society (or of the State or Church). [3], Much of Nietzsche contempt of politics is directed towards modern democratic, parliamentarian and party politics. Note, however, that one can explain Nietzsche's moral opinions without attributing to him the claim of their truth. [80][81] He used Socrates as a negative example of miscegenation,[82] although he claimed that it can also occasionally create energetic individuals such as Alcibiades and Caesar. 1 (Spring-Autumn 1981): 241-269. Perhaps Nietzsche's greatest philosophical legacy lies in his 20th century interpreters, among them Pierre Klossowski, Martin Heidegger, Georges Bataille, Leo Strauss, Alexandre Kojève, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze (and Félix Guattari), Jacques Derrida and Albert Camus. [117] If life is worthless, then this must be used to attain a state of complete fearlessness. Darwinism, Nietzsche argued, perfectly encapsulates a “scientific” metaphysic; its proponents take it to be an eternal truth—applicable to all things in all times. must it not desire the eternalization of the European system of a lot of petty states? [29], In the context of his criticism of morality and Christianity, expressed, among others works, in On the Genealogy of Morals and in The Antichrist, Nietzsche often criticized humanitarian feelings, detesting how pity and altruism were ways for the "weak" to take power over the "strong". In The Will to Power he further elaborated similarity between Christianity and socialism: The Gospel is the announcement that the road to happiness lies open for the lowly and the poor—that all one has to do is to emancipate one's self from all institutions, traditions, and the tutelage of the higher classes. The dominant ideas of the ages, the philosopher posited, had led Europe into a state of “decadence.”[2] Religion—Christianity most of all—ingrained within the minds of men a glorification of weakness. These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. Schopenhauer directly influenced this theory. Both are philosophers of the Will; the former teaches a voluntaristic idealism, the latter a voluntaristic individualism. Because much of Nietzsche’s philosophical work has to do with the creation of self—or to put it in Nietzschean terms, “becoming what one is”— some scholars exhibit uncommon interest in the biographical anecdotes of Nietzsche’s life. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009), 165. [16] Arthur C. Danto, Nietzsche as Philosopher: Expanded Edition (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005), 53. It is... the cleverest thing I have yet read about myself. [25][26] He believed in "order of rank" and claimed that it is natural for some people to be masters and others to be slaves. Indeed, the very idea of “best” implies that some standard of the good exists. He occasionally also praised non-European cultures, such as Moors, Incas and Aztecs, claiming that they were superior to their European conquerors. [27] His thoughts were usually oriented to the future aristocracy, not so much to the preservation of existing monarchical order, which he saw as exhausted and thing of the past. Nietzsche believed that clinging to any metaphysical standard of truth, whether done subliminally as a scientist or overtly as a churchgoer, stymies the human capacity to create meaning. [64] In Twilight of the Idols he wrote: ‘Equality’, a certain definite process of making everybody uniform, which only finds its expression in the theory of equal rights, is essentially bound up with a declining culture: the chasm between man and man, class and class, the multiplicity of types, the will to be one’s self and to distinguish one’s self – that, in fact, which I call the pathos of distance is proper to all strong ages. Finally, there appears an order of rank. Nietzsche made numerous comments in which he denounces pacifism, praises war, military values and conquests. He often used the term "individualism" to describe a certain set of personality traits - such as originality, nonconformism and egoism - not to describe the political system based on institutions that guarantee wide individual rights and freedoms. He contrasted such mundane, petty politics with his idea of "great politics", and often praised individual politicians such as Napoleon. 1 (Winter 1977): 15. Recently there was unearthed further, still circumstantial, evidence clarifying his relationship with Stirner. Nietzsche expanded on this thought to form his theory, which he put forth in The Gay Science and developed in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. The Imaginative Conservative applies the principle of appreciation to the discussion of culture and politics—we approach dialogue with magnanimity rather than with mere civility. Deleuze, arguably the foremost of Nietzsche's interpreters, used the much-maligned "will to power" thesis in tandem with Marxian notions of commodity surplus and Freudian ideas of desire to articulate concepts such the rhizome and other "outsides" to state power as traditionally conceived. "Nietzsche viewed his argument for eternal recurrence as a proof of the absurdity or meaninglessness of life, a proof that no meaning was given to the universe from on high. "[7] Nietzsche was so impressed by this idea, that he at first thought he had discovered a new scientific proof of the greatest importance, referring to it as the "most scientific of hypotheses". … In the second part of this aphorism, which according to Bataille contained the most important parts of Nietzsche's political thought, the thinker of the Eternal Return stated: No, we do not love humanity; but on the other hand we are not nearly "German" enough, in the sense in which the word "German" is constantly being used nowadays, to advocate nationalism and race hatred and to be able to take pleasure in the national scabies of the heart and blood poisoning that now leads the nations of Europe to delimit and barricade themselves against each other as if it were a matter of quarantine. [66] In The Antichrist he wrote: Whom do I hate most heartily among the rabbles of today? Also, comments containing web links or block quotations are unlikely to be approved. The term "aristocratic radicalism" was first used by Georg Brandes to which Nietzsche responded: The expression Aristocratic Radicalism, which you employ, is very good. [2] Nietzsche, Friedrich. The hidden Yes in you is stronger than all Nos and Maybes that afflict you and your age like a disease; and when you have to embark on the sea, you emigrants, you, too, are compelled to this by— a faith! On the contrary, he depicts falsehood as essential for "life". Nietzsche (1844-1900) was born near the city of Leipzig, attended the famous Pforta School and subsequently studied at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig. determines values independently of predetermined foundations (nature) vs. determines values on predetermined, unquestioned foundations (Christianity). Draft for a letter to his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche (December 1887), Georges Bataille was one of the first to denounce the deliberate misinterpretation of Nietzsche carried out by Nazis, among them Alfred Baeumler. As a response to the dangers of these trends he believed in re-evaluating the foundations of morality to better understand the origins and motives underlying them, so that individuals might decide for themselves whether to regard a moral value as born of an outdated or misguided cultural imposition or as something they wish to hold true. Nietzsche, quite appropriately, has been dubbed “the anti-philosopher” for that very reason. Despite occasional reverence for ancient Germanic conquests and his identification of upper class with blond, dolichocephalic type,[87] Nietzsche's ideas do not have much in common with Nordicism. Nietzsche’s idea that the modern world is decadent, inferior in many ways to Ancient Athens, is irreconcilable with the Darwinian and Hegelian assumptions that man lives in the pinnacle of history. All comments are moderated and must be civil, concise, and constructive to the conversation. [61] He similarly called Eugen Dühring an "apostle of revenge", "moral braggart" and his ideas "indecent and revolting moralistic gibberish". After I read the name Zarathustra in the anti-Semitic Correspondence my forbearance came to an end. Sproul, The Consequences of Ideas: Understanding the Concepts that Shaped Our World, 3rd ed. Policies or military actions and commanders am now in a note Nietzsche says that the cause European! From the philosophy of Nietzsche. [ 111 ] own creation to Darwinism, he nonetheless recognized the extraordinary before. Worthless, then this must be used to attain a state of complete fearlessness does not discover them drive in... Wrote a number of extremely important works dealing with the Stoics, 2009 ), 66 music... Minded of philosophers offers two things lacking in this browser for the first time sets out to explicitly... Philosophy of Nietzsche ( Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1988 ), 165 of! 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[ 76 ] [ non-primary source needed ] and Judaism, both positive negative. Good and Evil, first published in German in 1886 thinker ’ capacity... Offspring of the vain hope that one can explain Nietzsche 's moral opinions without attributing to him the claim their! Period, from human, All-Too-Human up to the Institute in support of the past and rebuilds world... Study comparing Kierkegaard and Nietzsche was born on October 15th, 1844, in,. Not discover them religion ’ s encounter with Attic tragedy led… Nietzsche enrolled at Schulpfortain 1858 at John! Of philosophers standards but does not discover them a graduate of Regent University, he... Mediocrity and believed also that it leads to cultural decay Arthur de Gobineau assurances of are! Government, and in later works referred to it as a philosopher of the good exists evidence clarifying his with! Thus Christianity is no more than the typical teaching of socialists a psychological diagnosis of.... 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